The Weimar Republic refers to Germany and its political system between the end of World War I in 1918 and the rise of Nazism in 1933. The formation of the Weimar Republic was a bold political experiment. The men who took control of Germany after World War I were ambitious reformers. They hoped to create a modern liberal democracy, in a nation which had known only state power and authoritarian monarchy. Together they adopted one of the most democratic and progressive constitutions in the world. In the mid 1920s Germany moved into a period dubbed the ‘Golden Age of Weimar’, marked by economic recovery, social renewal and cultural innovation. Much of this prosperity, however, was propped up by foreign loans, while the Weimar state was as weak and unstable as it was democratic. The Great Depression of the early 1930s brought the Weimar dream crashing to earth. By late 1933 Weimar democracy had given way to Adolf Hitler and Nazi totalitarianism.
The Weimar Republic is of great significance to historians and students alike. It demonstrates how democracy can fail when it is too ambitious and when internal forces work against it. Weimar Germany was a society very much at the crossroads of history. It was torn between the old ideas and values of the 19th century (tradition, militarism and authoritarian government) and those of the modern era (republicanism, liberalism and democracy). Understanding the failure of the Weimar Republic is essential for understanding how Adolf Hitler and the Nazis, one of the most fanatical and murderous regimes in human history, were able to seize power. The modernist culture of Weimar Germany, which flourished in spite of political and economic instability, is also worthy of study.
Alpha History’s Weimar Republic website contains hundreds of primary and secondary resources for researching, learning and understanding the German republic between 1918 and 1933. Our topic pages contain concise summaries of key Weimar Republic topics and events. We provide a range of carefully chosen primary sources, including documents, graphics and maps. There is also useful reference material like a timeline, glossary, a who’s who of significant leaders and a summary of Weimar Republic historiography. Finally, Alpha History also provides a range of interactive activities, such as crosswords and quizzes, where you can test your understanding of the Weimar period.