The Weimar Republic describes Germany and the German political system between 1918 (the end of World War I) and 1933 (the rise of Nazism). The Weimar Republic was created as a bold political experiment. The men who took control of Germany after World War I were ambitious reformers. They hoped to create a modern liberal democracy, in a nation which had known only militarism, state power and authoritarian monarchy. Together these reformers adopted one of the most democratic and progressive constitutions in the world. The first five years of the Weimar Republic were unsettled and tumultuous, marked by international isolation and economic suffering. In the mid 1920s Germany moved into a more prosperous period dubbed the ‘Golden Age of Weimar’, a time of economic recovery, social renewal and cultural innovation. Much of this prosperity, however, was propped up by foreign loans, while the Weimar state remained weak and unstable. The Great Depression of the early 1930s brought the Weimar dream crashing to earth. By late 1933 Weimar democracy had given way to Adolf Hitler and Nazi totalitarianism.
The Weimar Republic is of great significance to historians and history students alike. It demonstrates how democracy can fail when it is too ambitious and when internal forces work against it. Weimar Germany was a society at the crossroads of history. It was torn between several old ideas and values of the 19th century (tradition, militarism and authoritarian government) and those of the modern era (republicanism, liberalism and democracy). Understanding how and why the Weimar Republic failed is essential for understanding the rise of Adolf Hitler. In 1920 the Nazis were one of many small groups, filled with disgruntled nationalists and ex-soldiers; their growth, development and rise to power was shaped by the political and economic conditions in the Weimar Republic. The modernist culture of the Weimar era, which flourished in spite of Germany’s political and economic instability, is also worthy of study.
Alpha History’s Weimar Republic website contains hundreds of primary and secondary resources for researching, learning and understanding the German republic between 1918 and 1933. Our topic pages contain concise summaries of key Weimar Republic topics and events. We provide a range of carefully chosen primary sources, including documents, graphics and maps. There is also useful reference material like a timeline, glossary, a who’s who of significant leaders and a summary of Weimar Republic historiography. Finally, Alpha History also provides a range of interactive activities, such as crosswords and quizzes, where you can test your understanding of the Weimar period.