The Articles of Favourable Treament of the Qing Emperor (1914)

In December 1914 the Dowager Empress Longyu issued the following edict, guaranteeing the ‘favourable treatment’ of the Emperor by the incoming republican government:

“In consideration of the fact that the Qing emperor has publicly announced his approval of the establishment of a republican form of government, the following Articles relating to the Favourable Treatment of the Qing emperor after his abdication are hereby set forth:

1. After the abdication of the Qing emperor, his title of dignity is to be retained by the Republic of China with the courtesies which it is customary to accord to foreign monarchs.

2. After the abdication of the emperor, he will receive from the Republic of China an annual subsidy of 4,000,000 taels. After the reform of the currency this amount will be altered to $4,000,000.

3. After the abdication of the Qing emperor, he may, as a temporary measure, continue to reside in the Palace (in the Forbidden City), but afterwards he will remove himself to the Yi-Ho Park (the Summer Palace). He may retain his bodyguard.

4. After the abdication of the Qing emperor, the temples and mausoleums of the imperial family with their appropriate sacrificial rites shall be maintained in perpetuity. The Republic of China will be responsible for the provision of military guards for their adequate protection.

5. As the Ch’ung mausoleum of the late emperor Te-Tsung has not yet been completed, the work will be carried out according to the proper regulations (relating to imperial tombs). The last ceremonies of sepulture will also be observed in accordance with the ancient rites. The actual expenses will all be borne by the Republic of China.

6. The services of all the persons of various grades hitherto employed in the Palace may be retained; but in future no eunuchs are to be added to the staff.

7. After the abdication of the Qing emperor, his private property will be safeguarded and protected by the Republic of China.

8. The imperial guard corps as constituted at the time of the abdication will be placed under the military control of the War Office of the Republic of China. It will be maintained at its original strength and will receive the same emoluments as heretofore.”