The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1918)


The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, signed March 3rd 1918, ended hostilities between Russia and Germany and its allies. It was a punitive treaty that forced Russia to surrender large amounts of territory.


Article 1. Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey, for the one part, and Russia, for the other part, declare that the state of war between them has ceased. They are resolved to live henceforth in peace and amity with one another.

Article 2. The contracting parties will refrain from any agitation or propaganda against the Government or the public and military institutions of the other party…

Article 3. The territories lying to the west of the line agreed upon by the contracting parties which formerly belonged to Russia, will no longer be subject to Russian sovereignty; the line agreed upon is traced on the map submitted as an essential part of this treaty of peace. The exact fixation of the line will be established by a Russo-German commission… Russia refrains from all interference in the internal relations of these territories. Germany and Austria-Hungary purpose to determine the future status of these territories in agreement with their population.

Article 4. As soon as a general peace is concluded and Russian demobilization is carried out completely Germany will evacuate the territory lying to the east of the line… Russia will do all within her power to insure the immediate evacuation of the provinces of eastern Anatolia and their lawful return to Turkey…

Article 5. Russia will, without delay, carry out the full demobilization of her army inclusive of those units recently organized by the present Government. Furthermore, Russia will either bring her warships into Russian ports and there detain them until the day of the conclusion of a general peace, or disarm them forthwith… In the Baltic sea, and as far as Russian power extends within the Black sea, removal of mines will be proceeded with at once…

Article 8. The prisoners of war of both parties will be released to return to their homeland…

Article 9. The contracting parties mutually renounce compensation for their war expenses…

Article 10. Diplomatic and consular relations between the contracting parties will be resumed immediately upon the ratification of the treaty of peace…

Article 14. The present treaty of peace will be ratified. The documents of ratification shall, as soon as possible, be exchanged in Berlin…

Executed in quintuplicate at Brest-Litovsk, March 3rd 1918.