The Duke of Brunswick (1735-1806) was the commander of the powerful Prussian army, famous for his menacing warning to the people of revolutionary France. Born Charles William Ferdinand, he became a career soldier and saw service in the Seven Years War, before succeeding his father as Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel. In April 1792 Brunswick was given command of a joint Austrian-Prussian force massing near the French border. In July he issued the notorious Brunswick Manifesto, which warned his armies would destroy Paris if the royal family was harmed. The manifesto was aimed at frightening the revolutionaries into submission but it had the opposite effect, triggering the mob attack on the Tuileries (August 1792) and the September Massacres (September 1792). Brunswick was shot in the eyes and killed 14 years later, while fighting against the armies of Napoleon.